Field WorkPosted by Vanessa Boschloos Mon, October 09, 2017 08:34:12 At the end of the Summer, Vanessa Boschloos continued the PLD imaging sessions at the Coin Cabinet of the Royal Library of Belgium, initiated in December 2015. The collection comprises nearly 40 Phoenician coins of the Persian Period, assigned to the city-states on the Phoenician coast (Arwad, Byblos, Sidon and Tyre) or on Cyprus.They are almost exclusively made of silver, but also include a handful of gold and bronze pieces. The coins were recorded on both sides. This initiative is related to the inventory of Phoenician antiquities in Belgium made by, among others, Eric Gubel and Vanessa Boschloos in the framework of the project Corpus des Antiquités phéniciennes et puniques of the International Union of Academies (www.uai44-capp.be for more information on the Corpus).
Integrated in the last imaging session was the recording of a neo-Babylonian amulet with inscription, which will further be studied by Véronique Van der Stede.
Vanessa, Hendrik and Véronique thank the team at the KBR, especially Christian Lauwers, Johan Van Heesch and François de Callataÿ, for making these objects available and preparing them for the imaging sessions, and for all the support given during these 7 days.
ActivitiesPosted by Vanessa Boschloos Tue, September 19, 2017 15:24:49 The final annual meeting of IAP7/14: Greater Mesopotamia: Reconstruction of its Environment and History took place on Monday 18th of September at the Royal Museums of Art and History.
With 19 participants including 4 PhD students, 7 postdoctoral researchers and 8 senior researchers representing 5 network partners and 5 nationalities, the final annual meeting of the GMREHnetwork was centered around presentations of each partner's main activities and research results for 2012-2017, and the - in the meantime traditional - 'oriental lunch'. This allowed us to catch up on each others current and future projects, and have a short walk down memory lane with a presentation of highlights and memorable moments of the past five years, in the fields of mapping and surveying, archaeology, historical geography, history and chronology, and imaging.
On the 30th of May
2016 the 4th Neo-Babylonian Network (NBN) Meeting has been organised by
Kathleen Abraham and Melanie Groß at the Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven. In
the past years these annual meetings have been hosted by the University of
Vienna, Leiden University and Pantheon-Sorbonne University in order to provide
PhD-students in the Neo-Babylonian field with the opportunity to present and
discuss their on-going doctoral research with well-advanced scholars (on the
basis of individual responses). This year’s meeting brought together
Neo-Babylonian students and scholars from KU Leuven, VU University Amsterdam,
Leiden University, Pantheon-Sorbonne University and the University of Vienna. In
addition to a session about current PhD research, major projects established at
these same universities, including the NaBuCCo project (presented by Kathleen
Abraham, Stefania Ermidoro and Melanie Groß), have been introduced in order to
encourage scientific exchange on an international level. These meetings of an
international network of Neo-Babylonian scholars and students will be continued
in the upcoming years.
IAP PARTICIPATION IN THE 10th ICAANE, VIENNA -
25-29 MAY 2016
IAP researcher Anne Devillers attended the 10th ICAANE in
Vienna. She presented a communication on “Images of domestication: context and
Abstract: A quantitative evaluation of images
featuring animals on seals and sealings from the second half of the third
millennium BCE in Upper Mesopotamia shows considerable differences between
regions in several parameters, such as the prevalence of some domestic species
over others or the ratio of domestic vs wild animals. Examination of how these
specificities contribute to the understanding of seal production agency and use
and the codes that govern their iconography.
The work carried out within the IAP at the RMAH was further
represented by a poster for the team “Greater Mesopotamia, Reconstruction of
its Environment and History”.
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Mon, April 18, 2016 08:40:05 On 15-16 March 2016 the International Multidisciplinary Symposium: Non-destructive and Destructive Methods to Identify Archaeological Finds and their Host Deposits in Arid and Semi-arid Areas was held at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences; an initiative by the IAP partners RMAH and RBINS. The objective was to bring together different methodologies which address issues relating to the identification of materials and their composition. 60 to 70 researchers and students attended the symposium. The two day programme welcomed speakers from Belgium, Germany, France, The Netherlands, Egypt and Israel. The three keynotes to the symposium were:
- Georges Stoops - “The use of micromorphology in archaeology of the Near East“ - Patrick Degryse - “The origin and spread of glass making: The isotopic evidence” - Dennis Braekmans - Integrating technological and archaeometric approaches to 1st Millennium BC ceramics from the Southern Levant and North Africa
The full programme and abstracts can be found via this link.
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Mon, April 18, 2016 08:09:58 At the request of dr. Patrick M. Michel - Département des sciences de l'Antiquité - Unité de Mésopotamie (University of Genève) - the small collection of cuneiform tablets at the Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire (MCAH) at Lausanne was scanned with the Portable Light Dome on 11-12 April 2016. The scans will be used in the context of the on-going study and publication of these texts.
Name and Name-Giving: What names tell us about social realities
On the 8th and 9th
February 2016 the first international conference about Babylonian Name and Name-Giving has been held at the Leuven University (KU) Leuven. This meeting, which is envisaged to be the first one in a row, has
been organised by prof. dr. Kathleen Abraham and dr. Melanie Groß (KU Leuven) with the
intention to bring together an international group of Babylonian scholars and
discuss in a diachronic view current research about linguistic and especially socio-cultural
aspects of names which survived by the thousands on cuneiform tablets from
The conference hosted
well-established scholars and promising young researchers in the field of
Babylonian studies alike. While the majority came from all different parts of
Europe, it has also been possible to welcome colleagues from Israel. Moreover,
lectures have been given by members of the Greater
Mesopotamia Research Project (Anne Goddeeris, Melanie Groß, Jan Tavernier).
In the context of this international meeting about 15 well-prepared and
inspiring papers have been presented. While the majority dealt with names and
name-giving in Babylonia of the 1st millennium BCE, the participants
could also learn about this matter from the perspective of the Old Babylonian
material as well as of Babylonia’s neighbours Assyria and Persia.
While plans for future meetings
are soon to be developed, we are currently organising the Proceedings of this
Belgian archaeological expedition in the U.A.E. reveals the existence of
an Ancient Kingdom of Oman.
team directed by Dr Bruno Overlaet from the Royal
Museums of Art and History in Brussels, and working in close collaboration
with Sharjah's Department of Antiquities made
a discovery of major historical importance at the archaeological site of Mleiha
in the central region of the U.A.E. The find was made on 17 December 2015, the
last day of the team's fieldwork. The discovery was revealed to the press by
the Ruler of Sharjah, His Highness Dr Sheikh Sultan Bin Muhammed Al Qasimi on
28 Januari 2016.
tomb measuring approximately 5.20 by 5.20 meter is under excavation, work on it
is planned to resume in the fall of 2016. A square building of lime-bricks once
stood on top of two underground burial chambers. These chambers, which once
contained the deceased and the grave goods, had walls constructed with large
boulders. The passage between the rooms was blocked with bricks and a large monumental
inscription that had fallen down from the upper structure.
bi-lingual inscription is written in Aramaic and Ancient South Arabian. The
exceptionally well preserved text reveals the identity and the family lineage of
the deceased, as well as the date when the monument was built. The central
panel of the stone is written in Ancient South Arabian. It states that the tomb
was build by the son of a certain ʿAmīd, who was in the service of the king of Oman.
An Aramaic inscription is placed on the rim around the central panel. It gives
the date when the monument was erected, in the year 90 or 96 of the Seleucid
era, the equivalent of 222/221 or 216/215 BCE.
inscription provides the oldest mention of the name Oman and
proves that a kingdom of Oman already existed in the late 3rd
century BC. The local Abiel dynasty,
known from its coins minted at Mleiha, can in all probability be associated with
this title of "King of Oman”. Their kingdom was apparently centered around
Mleiha and probably consisted of the territory of the U.A.E. and the Northern
parts of the Sultanate of Oman. Up to now, the oldest mentioning of the name was
in Classical sources from the 1nd century CE where Omana refers to a harbour on the Oman peninsula.
This Omana in the Periplus
Maris Erythraei (Voyage around the Erythraean Sea) and in the Natural History by Plinius the Elder, is usually
associated with the coastal sites of either ed-Dur in Umm al-Qaiwain Emirate or
with Dibbah in Sharjah Emirate, both in the U.A.E. The identification of Mleiha
as the royal seat, suggests the Classical authors referred to a harbour that
served Mleiha, as the capital of the Oman Kingdom.
this stage, only the upper part of the burial chambers has been excavated. The excavation
will be resumed in the Fall of 2016.
01. Belgian excavations at Mleiha. View of the tomb with the
02. Belgian excavations at Mleiha. View of the tomb with the
03. Belgian excavations at Mleiha. The
04. Eisa Yousef of the Sharjah Department of Antiquities and Dr Bruno
Overlaet, director of the Belgian team, examining the funerary inscription.
The project Greater Mesopotamia Reconstruction
of its Environment and History, Work package V: History and Chronology is looking
forward to its First International BANANA Conference
BABYLONIAN NAME AND
WHAT NAMES TELL US ABOUT SOCIAL REALITIES
which will be held at the University of Leuven on February 8–9, 2016.
Recent years have seen major advances in the
prosopographic study of cuneiform sources from second and first millennium BCE
Babylonia with the publication of a large number of archival documents
containing thousands of personal names from the Old, Middle and Neo-Babylonian
periods. Thus we have the resources to look for and define patterns in the
selection of names and to evaluate their significance.
The study of Babylonian personal names has hitherto
focused primarily on the linguistic characteristics of the names, analyzing
their constitutive elements and classifying them in different types. However,
names also bear socio-historical information about the name-bearer, his or her
family and the society in which (s)he lived. They usually reveal a great deal
about cultural origins, social situations prevailing at a given time, changing
conditions and changes in the structural make up of society or society’s ethnic
The aims of the conference are to investigate how
cuneiform onomastic data can contribute to our understanding of Babylonia’s
social history, and which theoretical and technical frameworks are needed to
gather and use the vast onomastic data from second and first millennium BCE
Babylonia for this purpose successfully. The conference focuses on given names
as well as ancestral or family names, and is not limited to one period of
Babylonian history but favors a diachronic approach with the focus on changes
in naming trends, especially between the second and the first millennium BCE.
The conference endeavors to include a diverse range
of perspectives and disciplines concerned with a span of topics, areas and
periods as they relate to names and name giving practices in Babylonia in the
second and first millennia BCE.
We welcome talks that situate Babylonia’s onomastic
data within theoretical frameworks such as Social Network Analysis or the
ongoing structure versus agency debate of the social sciences, and reflect upon
the following topics and questions:
- the relationship between the type of name and the
person’s belonging to a particular sector of society, as for instance
exemplified by the existence of slave names and occupational names (Beamtennamen)
- the appearance of tri-partite names and usage of family
- the distribution of names and name patterns within
families within one generation of the same family and from one generation to
- the circumstances surrounding the use of abbreviated
names, nicknames (incl. those of the so-called Banana-type), double names and
hybrid names (esp. in multicultural environments), and those surrounding the
change of name (e.g. passage from one life stage to another; change in the
profession, class or status of the person)
- the incorporation of non-Babylonian names into the elite
Babylonian families and vice-versa the acceptance of Babylonian names by
immigrant populations, and other cross-cultural name combinations seen in the
onomastic record that touch upon the elusive concept of “Babylonianess”
- the choice of name in priestly families as a way to
express ideological identification
- the feasibility of developing a digital name corpus
for first millennium BCE Babylonia through international and interdisciplinary
IN MEMORIAM : Élisabeth du Puytison-Lagarce
Avec le décès de notre
regretté collègue Élisabeth Martin du Puytison - Lagarce (1941-2015), l’archéologie
syrienne ainsi que les études ougaritiques, levantines, phéniciennes et chypriotes
ont perdu l’une de leurs figures de proue. Ancienne élève des sœurs
Franciscaines à Damas et Beyrouth, Élisabeth avait hérité de son père une
passion pour l’histoire du Levant et celui-ci l’avait encouragé à entreprendre des études
sur le Proche Orient ancien à Paris. Études qui furent suivies de formations archéologiques
sur le terrain, l’amenant ainsi à Enkomi, Alasia, Ras Shamra et enfin, Ras Ibn
Hani. C’est là qu’Élisabeth m’a accueilli à de nombreuses occasions avec son
hospitalité légendaire, aux côtés de son mari Jacques et de leur fille Bérénice.
Les visites de chantier étaient passionnantes, tout comme les discussions lors
des visites qu’elle me dispensait à Tell Kazel et à Bruxelles, ainsi que lors
de nos rencontres aux de nombreux congrès et colloques en Orient, en Europe ou
en Afrique du Nord.
Collaboratrice de Jean Leclant
depuis la fin des années soixante, Élisabeth suivit de près les progrès de l’égyptologie
et signa plusieurs études dans un domaine pour lequel sa fille allait se
passionner à son tour. Paru en 1976, l’ouvrage collectif sur les fouilles de
Kition doit en effet beaucoup à sa vaste
connaissance bibliographique sur les scarabées et objets en faïence.(1) Trois ans plus
tard, elle eut l’occasion d’attirer l’attention de ses collègues sur le
substrat syrien de l’iconographie phénicienne à l’occasion du premier congrès
international des études phéniciennes et
puniques.(2) Sa profonde connaissance de l’Age du Bronze récent lui permit à
plusieurs occasions de percevoir la continuation des traditions levantines dans
les expressions culturelles d’autres zones méditerranéennes.(3) C’est cette
nouvelle orientation qui lui valut le rôle de responsable de groupements de
recherche (CNRS 989/URA 995) portant sur le modèle phénicien dans le développement
de la période orientalisante en Méditerranée, une décennie avant qu’une longue
et pénible maladie frappa son foyer.
Ces quelques lignes ne concernent
qu’un seul aspect d’une considérable production scientifique qui fit d’Élisabeth
un véritable précurseur de notre Pôle d’Attraction Interuniversitaire Greater Mesopotamia dans ses grands axes
(Levant) comme dans ses thèmes plus spécifiques (glyptique). Puissent Jacques
et Bérénice y trouver néanmoins quelque confort dans l’attente des notices
biographiques plus complètes que d’autres amis publieront bientôt…
Coordinateur PAI: Greater
(1) G. Clerc, V. Karageorghis, É.
Lagarce et J. Leclant, Fouilles de Kition,
II. Objets égyptiens et égyptisants:
scarabées, amulettes et figurines en pâte de verre et en faïence, vase
plastique en faïence. Sites I et II, 1969-1975, Nicosie, 1976, cfr. aussi É.
Lagarce, “Annexe I. Le scarabée de la tombe 13”, dans P. Courbin, Fouilles de Bassit. Tombes du Fer, Paris
1993 ; 119-123.
(2) É. Lagarce, “Le rôle d’Ugarit dans l’élaboration du répertoire iconographique syro-phénicien du premier millénaire avant J.-C. », Atti del I Congresso InternazIonaLe di Studi Fenici e Punici. Roma, 5-10 Novembre 1979, II, Rome 1983 ; 547-562.
(3) J. Lagarce & É. Lagarce, “Les lingots ‘en peau de bœuf’, objets de commerce et symboles idéologiques dans le monde méditerranéen”, Revue d'études phénico-puniques et d'antiquités libyennes X (1997) : 73-97, cfr. J. Gran-Aymerich & É. Lagarce, « Recherches sur la période orientalisante en Étrurie et dans le Midi ibérique », CRAIBL 139 (1995) : 567-602.
The IAP "Greater Mesopotamia" focuses on a study
area today troubled by civil wars and far stretching disorder. It’s researchers
do not want to ignore this agonizing reality. Within this research network evolutions
and revolutions that took place thousands of years ago are being studied and
explained. Therefore, as heritage sites all over the Middle East are now endangered
and mutilated, more as ever before, members of this IAP take and participate in
initiatives that try to find solutions for this new reality:
Wat met het erfgoed in Syrië en Irak? (Royal Museums of Art and History - 25/11/2015)
Together with colleagues Klaas Vansteenhuyse, Louis Hulstaert & Jan Van
Reeth, Hendrik Hameeuw (RMAH – KU Leuven) will focus during this charity
event on the abilities offered by registration, recording, documentation and imaging
technologies to reconstruct heritage sites and objects lost over
the last few years in Syria and Iraq. This event was
initiated by ‘Amarant’ and supported by the RMAH. For the programme see http://www.amarant.be/.
Bel temple in Palmyra (destroyed August 2015)
Journée d’étude Patrimoines en
(Musée royal de Mariemont - 27/11/15)
This study day focuses on the recent destructions of
heritage in the Near East and Egypt. One of the lectures by Jan Tavernier and Elynn Gorris (both UCLouvain) will
deal on Le patrimoine culturel dans les zones de guerre dans l'antiquité et
maintenant. The full programme can be found on http://greatermesopotamia.be/onewebmedia/Programme_Mariemont.pdf.
North-West palace at Nimrud (destroyed March 2015)
Digital Strategies for Heritage - DISH
(De Doelen, Rotterdam - 8/12/2015)
On the second day of the DISH2015 conference Hendrik Hameeuw
(RMAH – KU Leuven) and Daniel Pletinckx (director Visual Dimension bvba) will
organize a Table Session on the concept of lost heritage, “What to do if
heritage gets lost”. See http://www.dish2015.nl/programme/table-sessions/.
>>> Concerning the destructions in Syria an article in which GMREH researcher Joachim Bretschneider (KU Leuven) is interviewed has been published in October 2013 in the Flemish Ex Situ journal on archaeology.
>>> On the threatened heritage in Syria an opinion was posted on the KU Leuven Blog by GMREH researcher Hendrik Hameeuw (RMAH-KU Leuven) in january 2014.
>>> GMREH coordinator Eric Gubel (RMAH) wrote an in memoriam for Khaled al al-Asa’ad (Director of Antiquities at Palmyra) in the Flemish Ex Situ journal on archaeology in October 2015, see doc. below.
2nd Susa and Elam
conference: History, Language, Religion and Culture
From 6 to 9 July 2015, an
international conference took place at the Université catholique de Louvain
(UCL). The conference was organised by Jan Tavernier, Elynn Gorris (Université
catholique de Louvain) and Katrien De Graef (Universiteit Gent) had as main
intention to bring together resarchers on Susa and Elam to discuss the ongoing
research on this area in actual Southwest Iran.
Scholars from all over the world
(Iran, Europe, USA, Australia, Japan) gathered to present their research in
about 30 lectures. As such, one can believe that the conference was a success,
both on the scientific and social level. Also various partners of the IAP
project (Elynn Gorris, Jan Tavenier, Alexandre Tourovets, Rindert Janssens,
Frieda Bogemans and Cecile Baeteman) gave a lecture.
The Proceedings will be published
as a volume in the prestigious MDP series (Mémoire de la Délégation en perse).
The latest possible week of departure was very stressful as
usual. The visas were still lying at the Iranian embassy after 2 months of
waiting for our official visa number. Once we got hold on it we jumped onto the
airplane and left for Teheran. A short visit to the Geological Survey of Iran
in Karaj awaited us followed by a flight to Ahvaz.
Despite the pretty hot temperature it seemed it was again a
very fruitful campaign. After 2 years of experience of our local GSI manager Javad
and PhD student Reza we managed to fill important gaps needed for a decent
reconstruction of the past environments in the study area. Although some areas
were still too wet to reach by car, we were able to find all our necessary
locations by driving many kilometres back and forth. The result, however, is
obvious: 23 new cores until a depth of 12 m. This brings our total number of
cores to 67 for this project. Seven samples for age determination and over 100
samples for (clay) mineralogical study were collected.
Before returning home, the Geological Survey of Iran took
advantage of the experience of Frieda who explained the methodology of mapping
Quaternary deposits because the GSI started such a project. An unexpected
impact of IUAP !
Several locations were situated in or around Shadegan, a
large irrigated area with a same named city in its centre. This palm green area
is known for its delicious but sticky dates and its curious Arab inhabitants. More
than once we were accompanied with an audience as if we were part of a movie,
waiting for something very funny to happen. This luckily never did. Some other
locations were situated in huge sugar cane fields for which we needed specific
governmental documents, which we didn’t have last year. Javad organised them
this time long before our arrival in Ahvaz.
During the campaign 7 Iranian PhD students accompanied us in
order to be trained in describing undisturbed hand drilled cores. To avoid
headache they didn’t come all at once but in groups of 1 or 2.
Scientific Mission in Turkey, 12-19/04/2015 (WP III: Historical
From 12 to 19 April 2015, a team of the Université catholique de Louvain
(Jan Tavernier, René Lebrun, Agnès Degrève, Etienne Van Quickelberghe and
Johanne Garny) has explored the ancient kingdom of Tarhuntassa, which
corresponds nowadays with the region around the Turkish cities Silifke and
Karaman. The aim of the mission was twofold. On the one hand, it aims at
helping the researchers to find the exact localisation of the ancient capital
Tarhuntassa. On the other hand, it sought to give the specialists a better
understanding of the territorial extent of the ancient kingdom of Tarhuntassa.
Various 2nd Millennium sites were visited: Sirkeli (fig. 1), Gözlükule (ancient Tarsus), Yumuktepe (ancient
Mersin; fig. 2), Kilisetepe, Kızıldağ (fig. 3-4), Karadağ and Meydancikkale (fig. 5-7). The
focus was on their geographical environment and their possibility to “host” a
large administrative centre. Next to that, some museums were also visited
(Tarsus, Mersin, Silifke).
The various results that emanated from this mission
will now be connected to the textual evidence of the kingdom of Tarhuntassa in
order to extend our knowledge of this highly important 13th-century BC
Unexpectedly, when visiting the beautiful site of Tatarlı Höyük (fig. 8-9), to the east of Adana, where excavations only started
recently, the idea that this site could very well be the ancient town of
Lawazantiya imposed itself. This will be further investigated as a sort of
Fig. 1: Relief at Sirkeli
Fig. 2: Yumuktepe
Fig. 3: Relief of Kartapu (Kızıldağ)
Fig. 4: Luwian inscription on the top of the Kızıldağ
Co-directors: Prof. Dr. Joachim Bretschneider,
University of Ghent & KU Leuven, Dr. Athanasia Kanta, Mediterranean
Archaeological Institute and Prof. Dr. Jan Driessen, Université Catholique
To explore the end of the Late Bronze Age
in the Eastern
Mediterranean and the character of cultural
interaction among the
peoples during this period the archaeological
research at the site of Pyla-Kokkinokremos in Cyprus surfaces as an exceptional
opportunity, owing to its founding at the end of the 13th century BC – a time when the Late Bronze Age crisis
reached its zenith –, its very short-lived occupation and its seemingly planned
abandonment leaving all material in situ. While the settlement was inhabited for what appears to
be less than fifty years, the site becomes a very valuable ‘time capsule’ of
this critical phase.
Following several earlier
explorations of the site of Kokkinokremos, near the village of Pyla on the
south-east coast of the island of Cyprus, a second excavation campaign by a
joint mission of the Universities of Leuven and Louvain (Belgium) and the
Mediterranean Archaeological Institute of Crete (Greece) took place from March 29th
to April 26th 2015.
KU Leuven team continued research in Sector 5 on
the eastern slope of the southern protrusion of the Pyla-Kokkinokremos plateau.
During the four week campaign the team resumed excavation in order to complete information
on the previously uncovered architectural units (Space 1-6) and exposed
four more units (Space 7-10). A corridor-shaped space (Space 8) yielding
several outstanding finds – such as two imported alabaster vases and a large
black stone jar, a female-shaped libation vessel and an amphorid Mycenaean
krater decorated with birds – leads to a meticulously plastered room (Space 7).
Space 6 comprises of a pit-like structure, measuring 3.5 m in depth, cut
out in the bedrock. At the bottom, a circular stone structure, a complete jar
and a terracotta recipient filled with burnt organic material were discovered.
To be continued …
The members of the 2015 KU Leuven team included Joachim Bretschneider
(co-director), Greta Jans, (archaeologist), Anne-Sophie Van Vyve (archaeologist
& PhD student), Matthias Mallaerts (IT), Nienke Veraa and Anne-Vera Veen
(students). Adeline Hoffelinck, Maarten Praet and Ferdinand Hollenhorst
(students) conducted their apprenticeship in Pyla and Wouter Vermeiren (IT) completed the team.
Fig.1: View on the – until now – most eastern
wall and rooms (Spaces 9 and 10) of Sector 5.
Fig.2: Stone basin in Space 9. Fig.3: View from the south on Sector 5 with in
front the plastered room (Space 7).
Fig.4: Excavating a complete jar inside the 3.5
m deep shaft (Space 6).
Fig.5: The recipient filled with burnt organic material at
the bottom of the pit.
Prof. Karageorghis visiting Pyla; here together with Athanasia Kanta, Manolis
Vrachnakis and Joachim Bretschneider.
6th archaeological campaign
at Mleiha, Sharjah (UAE)
The Royal Museums of Art and History,
A Belgian team works at Mleiha
since 2009. The 2014 campaign (20/11-18/12/2014) was mainly a study campaign on
the architectural remains, finds and ceramics that are kept in storage at the
site. The field activities were limited to surveying and to the continuation of
the excavation of two monumental tombs that had started the previous year. At
the same time, a drone for aerial photography was tested in various weather
conditions and environments. The 2014
expedition is supported by the Royal Museums, the FWO (Research Foundation - Flanders) and the IAP VII (Greater Mesopotamia: Reconstruction of its Environment and History) and works in
close collaboration with the Directorate of Antiquities of the Emirate of
Sharjah, headed by Dr. Sabah Jasim. The expedition is
directed by B. Overlaet (RMAH), members and collaborators of the 2014 team were
E. Haerinck (senior archaeologist), B. De Prez, P. Pincé and L. Van Goethem (archaeologists), H.
Steenbeke and M. Coppejans (architectural reconstructions) and Patrick Monsieur
Fig. 1. The 2014 Belgian field team and local
During the first four years a
large surface with 7 monumental tombs and 4 more modest pit graves (zone P) was
excavated on the eastern fringes of the site (Fig. 2). In 2013 a ground
penetrating radar survey targeted its surroundings, extending the research area
eastwards up to the modern wadi. A series of tombs with monumental square
superstructures were revealed and the excavations documented the presence of
modest pit tombs between the clusters of monumental tombs (Fig. 2). The two
monumental tombs excavated in the 6th season are located on the low
mound Z. Both tombs were looted but still produced interesting finds such as
Rhodian amphora fragments, Mesopotamian glazed luxury vessels, various types of
gold beads and alabaster vessels from Yemen. All these point to a date in the
first half of the 2nd century BCE. They illustrate the importance and
the role of Mleiha on the Arabian trade routes and contribute important
elements for the chronology of the Oman peninsula.
Fig. 2. Drone photography of graveyard area
AV with the Belgian excavations.
Drones and aerial photography
Drones are ideal for
oblique overviews of excavations, vertical photography in view of mapping and
measuring and for more general surveying purposes. Drones can replace the use
of ladders and scaffolds and of kites or hot air/helium balloons on many digs. Professional drones
remain expensive and complex, however, and demand a skilled and well trained
pilot, often seconded by someone to operate the camera. In recent years, archaeologists
have therefore started to experiment with low budget recreational drones fitted
with lightweight cameras. Commonly reported problems of these early attempts were, however, a limited
flight time due to battery capacity, low quality photography and particularly
the inability to use the drone in anything but very light winds. The latest generation
of “consumer drones” have become increasingly user friendly and most of these
problems have been solved. We opted to experiment with a standard version of a
“DJI – Phantom 2” quadcopter mounted with a 12 MP camera on a damped 2D gimbal
for stability. The camera can be tilted in flight between a horizontal and
vertical position. An OSD or “On Screen Display” module streams the camera view
and technical and navigational data to a monitor on the remote controller. This
makes it ideal for low altitude aerial surveys in accordance with aeronautical
regulations (below 50 meter). The relatively small drone necessitates video
piloting (FPV, First-Person View) via the monitor when surveying larger areas
since it is impossible to keep track of it with the naked eye.
Fig. 3. The drone in
its transport case and mounted on a backpack.
The drone is kept “flight
ready” in a custom made protective transport case at the excavations and can be
made ready for flight within minutes. It can thus be used on the spot without
delaying any of the excavation activities.
During the 2014 expedition at Mleiha trials were made
in different environments and weather conditions. Flights were made above the
excavation field in the wadi plain and during surveys around the excavations
and on the nearby Jebel Fayah mountain ridge. Surveying flights above the wadi
during the early morning hours produced excellent shadow marks. Flights could
normally continue for several hours until stronger thermals started to develop
and “dust devils” started occurring. The general experience was very positive,
however. The drone could be flown in moderate to strong winds and performed
well in all conditions. With a maximum flight speed of 15m/s. (54 km/h.) it can
even counteract gusty winds.
Fig. 4. Subtle shadow
marks of very low mounds with monumental tombs in area AV. The oblique view
emphasises the effect of the shadows.
Drone surveying in the mountains demands a somewhat
different approach. The drone was mounted on a backpack and used from various
points near the top of the Jebel Fayah (see fig. 1). Flights were made early in
the morning and halted once thermals, accelerated by their path across the
mountain, reached vertical velocities of more than 1m/second. In a mountainous
environment is keeping visual track of the drone essential in view of the
effect of local winds and turbulences on the flight path close to the relief. Turbulences
and thermal activities can be strong and develop rapidly. In general, these first trials on the Jebel
Fayah were all together positive. The technical equipment was effective and
allows covering large zones in limited timespans. During these first trials,
two structures - likely to be a musallahs or prayer area - were located and
documented. A general aerial survey of the mountain area could supply important
data to identify and protect local archaeological and historical heritage.
Fig. 5. Mountain top
of the Jebel Fayah with a square structure, possibly a musallah.
Fig. 6. A Dust Devil, a strong thermal sweeping up
the sand, moves over the excavations.
Pyla Kokkinokremos is the
name of a ca. 57 m high rocky plateau, about 800 m from the present southeast
coastline of Cyprus, located in the British sovereign base of Dhekeleia. It is
located some 10 km east of Kition and some 20 km southwest of Enkomi, two major
Bronze Age centres of the 13th-12th century B.C.,
the period known as Late Cypriot IIC and IIIA.
The site was explored at
three previous occasions: first by Dr. P. Dikaios in 1952, by Dr. V.
Karageorghis in 1981-1982 and, more recently, in 2010-2013, by Dr. V.
Karageorghis and Dr. A. Kanta. Its proximate region also formed the focus of an
intensive and systematic surface survey and geomorphological project by an
American team under the direction of W. Caraher since 2003, focusing on the
Roman and Late Antique occupation.
1: Area 5, view from the north
2: Excavating the stone
basin in Room 2
Based on these different
explorations, it can be assumed that the entire plateau of ca. 7 ha was densely occupied. Most telling is the excavation of part of a
regularly laid-out settlement in the eastern sector of which the outer
perimeter wall is assumed to have encircled the entire hill top plateau. The
repetition of residential units within the excavated zones seems to suggest
that the establishment of the settlement was a deliberate and planned
enterprise. Moreover, although some traces of fire were observed, the discovery
of material culture including several hidden hoards of precious metals
seems to suggest the planned and organised abandonment of the settlement. This
and the international character of its finds make it an exceptional site.
Moreover, during the 2010-2013 explorations in the west sector, a possible gate
was cleared close to which were found two tablets inscribed in
Cypro-Minoan, fired intentionally (see: http://www.efsyn.gr/arthro/stin-pyla-oi-pinakides-eihan-rahi-san-ta-simerina-vivlia).
3: Prof. Vassos Karageorghis visiting
the Pyla excavation fall 2014 (with Dr. Athanasia Kanta & Prof.
Because of its limited
chronological occupation, its location and its specific material culture, Pyla
Kokkinokremos plays a major role in the discussion on potential Aegean
migrations to Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean.
The aim of the new
excavations is to arrive at a better understanding of the nature of the Pyla
Kokkinokremos settlement structure, the reasons for its founding and the
circumstances of its desertion. At the same time, we want to understand its
regional and interregional context both where its socio-political landscape is
concerned and its environmental setting. We also hope that a better definition
of its material culture, especially where the ethnic mix is concerned, will
allow us a better grasp of its historical reality.
4: Unearthing the bronze hoard in Room 2
5: The bronze hoard in situ
Co-directors are Prof.
Dr. Joachim Bretschneider, University of Ghent & KU Leuven, Dr.
Athanasia Kanta, Mediterranean Archaeological Institute and Prof. Dr.
Jan Driessen, Université Catholique de Louvain.
The members of the 2014 KU
Leuven team included Joachim Bretschneider (co-director), Greta Jans, (archaeologist),
Anne-Sophie Van Vyve (archaeologist & PhD student), Pierre Van Hecke (philologist
– cuneiform writing), as well as Shanah Deboeck and Thomas Maréchal
6: Selection of objects of the bronze hoard
The 2014 excavation campaign by the University of
Leuven team focused on the eastern slope of the southern protrusion of the
Pyla-Kokkinokremos plateau (Area 5). Three weeks of excavation has uncovered a
total surface of 140 m2 and yielded surprising results.
Six architectural units have been partially excavated. A plausible outer or
casemate wall has been uncovered within a unique context. The architectural
features and installations – like a
plastered basin, a stone ‘basin’ and a hearth – as well as the numerous ceramic
and small finds – with a hoard
consisting of 30 metal objects – will
certainly enrich our knowledge concerning this unique settlement.
NewsPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Fri, July 04, 2014 08:56:25 On the website of the Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve a short article was published on the recordings of Mesopotamian Heritage which were made by the IAP WP VI-team several months ago (see also blog post 20). This article will also appear in the forthcoming number of the museum's bulletin, Le Courrier 31 (September): Druart E., Hameeuw H. and Tavernier J.: Numérisation de la collection Proche-Orient ancien.
Belgian research at
Karon on the Oxus, Badakhshan - Tajikistan
Royal Museums of Art
and History & Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Following a first visit to the site in October
2013 by B. Overlaet (RMAH) and the identification of quern stones near the site
as related to gold mining, an interdisciplinary team set out to investigate
this industrial activity and its impact on population and landscape. This
research wanted to complement the ongoing work at Karon by Tajik and Russian
expeditions. The Belgian team consisted of Prof. Dr. Bruno Overlaet, Laurence
Van Goethem (Royal Museums of Art & History, Brussels) and Rindert Janssens
(Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels). During this first
campaign at Karon (21/5 – 12/6/2014), a survey was made, an Islamic graveyard
was explored and geological and biological samples were collected for analysis.
Karon is situated on a mountain top along the
Panj river (Oxus) between Khalai Khumb and Kevron in the Darwaz region of
Tajikistan. Since 2012, the site is studied by Prof. Y. Yakubov (Academy of
Sciences, Tajikistan) and Dr. A. Nikitin (Hermitage Museum, Saint-Petersburg), who
were now joined by the Belgian team.
Karon: view towards the mountaintop palace, sunken
garden and pavilion.
Karon has a long history of human occupation, shown by the presence of
various types of tombs and isolated finds such as Kushan and Sogdian coins.
Yet, most of the constructions we see today date from the 15th-16th century, the
time of the Timurid and Shaybanid rulers. There is a huge walled area with a
palace, terrases, a large sunken garden and several pavilions and buildings,
many of which remain to be excavated. It is clear, however, that the wealth of
local rulers was based on the control of the ancient trade route and on gold
mining. A huge landslide has landed rotary stone querns, used for the milling
of gold containing quartz, at the riverbank of the Panj.
The palace, on the
highest point of the site, overlooks a large valley with several constructions,
among them a sunken garden, a pavilion, a graveyard, a wine press and a large
open space, referred to as the polo field. The “Sunken Garden” is a deepened
area of 50 by 90 meter with three descending terraces and a rectangular area,
possibly a pond, accessible from a staircase along the eastern side. The
retaining walls are strengthened with half-columns. Karon’s Sunken Garden is
one of the many garden complexes that were created in this part of Central Asia
under the Shaybanid dynasty (1428-1598 AD) and that are known to have been
inspirational to Muhammad Zahir al-Din Babur (1526-1530 AD), the first Mughal emperor.
The use of terraces, ponds and retaining walls with half-columns resembles
Bagh-e Babur near Kabul
The “Polo Field” is a large area with a terraced
embankment on one side and a large dry stone wall along the other, and has the
approximate size of a modern polo field, hence its name. In a large complex
such as Karon, a Maidan, a large open area where various activities could take
place, is a feature that is to be expected.
In between the “Sunken Garden” and the “Polo
Field” lies a square pavilion, possibly a mausoleum, built in dry stone
technique combined with bricks for the curvature of the arches. The monument is
still under investigation but it is clear that it has known many building
phases. Several overlapping platforms are present at its base and at some
point, the building was encased in walls with half-columns, much like those of
the Sunken Garden, that completely closed the access to the building. A 6th-7th
century coin found in the upper part of the pavilion is the only find at
present and suggests the core of the building may predate the Shaybanid era. Its
central position in the valley emphasizes its importance.
Karon: the central pavilion.
gold mining activities
The Belgian team set out to investigate the
gold mining activities and survey the
area. A large number of rotary quern stones are present amidst landslide debris
along the right bank of the Panj river, just below the mountaintop site of
Karon. These were mostly lower quern stones but also some upper mill stones and
two upper mill stones which had been in the process of being extracted. Their
present location and their position (many are tilted or even upside down) is
not their original place of use. They have been moved, most probably by a
landslide but recent roadworks involving rock blasting may also have had an
Rotary quern stones nr. 6 and 7 (top) and upper mill stones 25 and 26 during
the extraction (bottom)
Contrary to the exploitation of alluvial gold from the river,
which is a relatively simple technique (panning or washing out), the use of
quern stones indicates the more complicated exploitation of gold containing
quartz veins. This requires a large skilled labour force and a central power
that organises and oversees the complex workflow of mining, ore reduction and
smelting. The technology is documented in Egypt and consists of the following
1. 1. The ore
mining : the veins of gold containing quartz can be mined in open areas or by
following the veins in underground tunnels
(often open fire is used to break down the quartz veins to workable
2. 2. The quartz
ore had to be crushed and milled to obtain a powdery material that could be
further concentrated by washing. Large blocks were crushed with hand hammers or
pestles on dimple stones; the smaller particles were then milled in rotary
querns to a fine substance.
3. 3. Smelting of
the ore (on-site or in a specialised refinery) followed by “gold from lead
separation” techniques. These chemical processes involved heavy metals which
may have impacted on the environment and involved individuals.
The geological and
archaeological survey was directed at locating possible mining and industrial
areas. Iron smelting activities are attested in rooms near the mountaintop
palace, which is considered to be the local seat of power. The presence of
Chinese export porcelain and painted muqarnas dates this palace to the
15th-16th century. Possibly the smelting and refining activities took place in
this area, where excavations are ongoing. The geological survey was based on a
petrological analysis whereby in-situ rocks were described and sampled for
further chemical, mineralogical and petrological research. On the field 5 rock
units were observed: (1) fylite (high diagenetic equivalent of mudstone), (2)
fylite with quartz veins, (3) shists (medium diagenetic equivalent of
mudstone), (4) granite-granodiorite and (5) granodiorite intruded with quartz
veins. The shists may be reformed to saprolite by chemical and fysical
weathering of this rock-type and in some zone’s well-formed pyrite crystals up
to 1 cm3 occur.
There were no archaeological
traces of the mined quartz veins, possibly they were located in the landslide
area to the west of the mountaintop palace. Any open mining activities in the saddle
areas between the mountaintops, may be hidden by recent erosive depositions.
and impact of gold mining activities on humans
The sunken garden in
front of the mountaintop palace was studied and sampled to establish its use
and flora. This was done by digging a pedological window of 1 m3 in the square lowest area of the garden (though
to be possibly a pool) and describing the sedimentological and pedological features.
Samples now need to be processed.
location of the graveyard and
view of tombs 1 to 5
graveyard on the slope descending from the mountaintop palace towards the
sunken garden was partly excavated. A row of 8 cist tombs was discovered. The
tombs were constructed on the natural bedrock, the long sides with shist
stones, the front and top with large slabs. The tombs were protected upslope by
a low dry stone wall, in front of the tombs was a narrow paved path. The
downslope short side of several tombs was destroyed by erosion. One of the
tombs had been re-used and contained two skeletons. The individual had been
killed by two cuts in the head, one of which had removed part of the skull. The
second skeleton was only partially preserved. Since the graveyard belonged to
the Islamic era, the skeletal remains were reburied. However, biological
samples were collected from five tombs. They will be tested for the presence of
heavy metals as possible side-effect from ore refining activities and analysed
with regard to nutrition. Carbon 14 dating on the different individuals will
provide a time range for activities at Karon.
session on the identification of stones used in the manufacture of cylinder and
stamp seals took place at the RMAH on Thursday June 19th. The
training was organized by and aimed at the young researchers working on the
Antiquity Department’s glyptic collections, and quickly joined by other
colleagues from the department.
Geologist Thierry De Putter of the RMCA was
invited to share his expertise and kindly offered to present an overview of the
rocks and minerals we generally encounter in museum collections. By taking a
closer look under the microscope at a selection of objects, particularly a
number of cylinder seals in various dark-coloured stones dating from the
Djemdet Nasr and Akkadian periods, the GMREH’s glyptic team discovered the
subtleties in distinguishing between stones that, at first glance, look very
The UCL team is proud to announce that Elynn Gorris, one of our
youngest IAP members, has received a vocatio
Award 2013-2014 (10.000 €). With this award, she will attend 6 intensive
language courses of modern Persian at the University of Tehran (9 months in
total), which will allow her to read the recent investigations and
archaeological reports of Iranian colleagues and integrate their results into
her research on the Neo-Elamite kingdom.
of Joachim Bretschneider to the international expert meeting “Rallying the
International Community to Safeguard Syria’s Cultural Heritage” in the
headquarters of Unesco - Paris 26 - 28 of May 2014.
The meeting brought together more than
120 experts from 22 countries to share information, devise policies and improve
international cooperation during the conflict and beyond. They included
cultural heritage specialists from Syria and the Syrian diaspora,
representatives of Syrian NGOs, archeologists, and members of UNESCO
institutional partners, as well as academics from universities in the Middle
East and beyond. Representatives of major international auction houses also
took part in the meeting.
From May 24th until May 25th, Anne
Goddeeris participated in a conference on Money and Cult, The Role of the
Temple in the Ancient Economy, in Dublin, Ireland. Besides giving a paper
titled "It comes with the job. The duties and benefits attached to temple
during the old Babylonian period (1900 – 1600 BCE)", she actively
participated in the round table discussions.
Field WorkPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Tue, May 20, 2014 12:07:48 From 14 till 16 May 2014 IAP researchers Anne Devillers and Hendrik Hameeuw worked, studied and imaged a part of the Schøyen Collection in Norway. For 3 days they were granted access to the Uruk IV-III cuneiform tablets & bullae and to the stamp seal collection. This exceptional material fits in their ongoing research on glyptic studies and joins with WP V (History and Chronology) & WP VI (Imaging and Technology) of the IAP 7/14.
Anne Devillers inspecting cylinder seal impressions on a Uruk III tablet
In total all of the 4th/3rd millenium stamp seals were described and scanned in bulk with the Portable Light Dome. Of the almost 400 Uruk period cuneiform tablets 28 exemplars carried traces of cylinder seal impressions; as for the stamp seals, they were described in detail and scanned. Back in Brussels and Leuven the further study will be continued with help of these descriptions and by consulting the images made with the Portable Light Dome.
Hendrik Hameeuw scanning with the Portable Light Dome at the Schøyen Collection
Inside the Portable Light Dome, scanning a 5000 year old cuneiform tablet
The aim of the research stay is to prepare a publication on the glyptic material in the Schøyen Collection, in the first place, for the seal impression on the Uruk IV-III tablets. This work will be undertaken in close collaboration with Bob Englund of the UCLA (CDLI project, one of the IAP 7/14 international partners) who took the responsibility to publish the Uruk period texts of the collection.
A cylinder seal impression depicting a walking lion on a Uruk Period clay tablet
NewsPosted by Joachim Bretschneider Mon, May 12, 2014 13:34:38 Organizing
(together with the Saudi Commission for
Tourism and Antiquities) the exhibition concerning the joint Saudi-Belgium project in the Al-Ghat
region - National Museum in Riyadh. Opening: 15.03.2014.
15.03.2014: Princess Astrid, the representative of
King Philip of Belgium, visits the archaeological exhibition of the joint
Saudi-Belgian project at Al-Ghat in the National Museum in Riyadh. Upon
arrival, Princess Astrid was welcomed by Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz,
President of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA) and a
number of officials. Princess Astrid was accompanied by Belgium's Deputy Prime
Minister and Foreign Minister Didier Reynders.
Princess Astrid, Prince
Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz and Minister Reynders were briefed by Prof.
Joachim Bretschneider on the recent discoveries of the joint
Saudi-Belgian excavation mission at Al-Ghat.
second study season in the Al-Ghat region was conducted between the 1st
and the 18th of March 2014. The project works under the aegis of the Saudi Commission for Tourism
and Antiquities, Riyadh and the University of Leuven, Belgium.
project is directed by Mr. Mohammed Ali Alsalouk and Joachim Bretschneider. The Belgian team
consisted of Prof. Joachim Bretschneider, Prof. Philip Van Peer, Nicolas Kress,
Greta Jans, Anne-Sophie Van Vyve, Dave Geerts, Marjolein Van der Waa, Shanah De
Boeck en Ellen Van Belle.
for early human activity, some areas like the Wadi Markh, were extensively
surveyed. Several excavation quadrants were opened on Jebel Markh and Qurayy as Sumur and these sites were topographically documented.
NewsPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Tue, May 06, 2014 10:50:27 Over the last days an interview with the excavators of the Al-Ghat expedition (KU Leuven) has been published in several media, below a selection:
On March 17-18th
2014 Kathleen Abraham, Shai Gordin (KU Leuven) and Michael Jursa (Universität
Wien) organized a workshop at Leuven in which they discussed the set-up of a
Neo-Babylonian Cuneiform Corpus (=NaBuCCo) website aimed at making available
the large corpus of archival documents from first millennium BCE Babylonia to
historians of the ancient world in general and Assyriologists in particular.
NaBuCCo is a
text-oriented website that aims at putting textual metadata of an estimated
20,000 published Babylonian documentary sources created between roughly 800 and
the end of the pre-Christian era online. It will collect all meta-textual data
from the sources, make the data available online, and link them to the original
source documents from which they are extracted. There will be four main
categories of metadata (Fig. 1): (1) identifiers (NaBuCCo no, CDLI no, museum
no, collection no, duplicates, joins, publication, period, date, archive,
provenience), (2) physical characteristics (dimensions, orientation, sealings,
markings, philological notes), (3) content (text type, transaction object,
quantifiable data, keywords, main persons, paraphrase) and (4) bibliography.
Fig. 1: Metadata – Tablet identifiers
The paraphrase (or Descriptive Summary) is one of
the project’s key elements (Fig. 2), explaining and clarifying the source
texts. By providing such descriptive summaries in narrative style and directly
linking them to the original source documents from which the content data are
extracted, we will make the difficult to interpret cuneiform corpus more accessible.
Fig. 2. Paraphrase: descriptive summary of text’s
We hope that the project will benefit the research
community, and will enhance the possibilities of conducting historical and
social investigations into Babylonia’s multicultural society of the first
millennium BCE. The end-product will significantly enrich the resources for the
study of the political, economic, social and cultural history of Babylonia, and
constitute the basis for advanced fundamental research.
Within six months
(October 2013 - March 2014) Abraham and Gordin have designed the input model,
in close cooperation with the KU Leuven LIBIS team whose consultant has been configurating
their software program CollectiveAccess to our needs (http://www.libis.be/, s.v. Heron).
In the next
stages we will start with the data input and develop the end-user application that
will allow online access to the data.
The NaBuCCo project
is firmly situated in the Digital Humanities area of research. It follows
recent research trends and projects in Europe and worldwide which integrate state-of-the
art philological research of cuneiform documentary sources with computer
In the study of
the ancient world and more specifically in the discipline of Cuneiform Studies
a sweeping digitalization movement is taking place. There are several projects,
in the Anglo-Saxon scholarly world, in Continental Europe, and in the United
States in particular, which are rapidly moving towards a digitized research environment
in which tools are freely accessible online. The range is broad: from full-text
and metadata databases dealing with Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Hittite
texts from various regions, to quality-controlled wiki-environments for editing
ancient documents. These are essential tools to perform innovative fundamental
is worthy that our IAP 07/14 funded research group join in such initiatives and
offer the scholarly community the fruits harvested by our
research. Against this background we have set up the NaBuCCo project at the KU
Congress followed by a sunny field campaign, Iran.
1. 1. GSI
The 1st International Geosciences Congress, organized by
the Geological Survey of Iran, started on 16th of February 2014.
After the official opening in Tehran, a quick flight and sub congress in Urmia
(NW Iran) dealing with the catastrophic human-induced drying of Lake Urmia
(which is largely caused by the construction of a solid highway through the
lake, and irrigation activities) we arrived finely in Chabahar (SE Iran, close
to the Pakistan border) to present our first IAP phase VII results at the
Marine Sciences University. The beautiful landscape and specific geological
features, such as huge mud volcanoes, badlands and raised beaches, were shown
during a splendid field excursion. With some sweet dried dates in our hands,
the views and the knowledge that old civilisations lived here long before in
the same environment makes us dream of those ancient times and… of course of
the processes behind the formation of these beautiful features.
Left: a medium-sized mud volcano near
Chabahar, right: the Mars Mountains with their beautiful badlands
2. Field campaign (20/02 – 06/03/2014)
in the early morning of 20 February in Ahwaz (Khuzestan Province) we just had
time in between some local GSI meetings to visit the nearby ancient fortress
city of Shushtar. Here, the Roman hydraulic water management is an example of
pure geniousity. The dams built by those captured Romans would indeed give a
solution to the above-mentioned drying of the Urmia lake nowadays. The Salasel
fortress, built during the Parthian or Sassanid era, was largely destroyed by
the Arab invasion around 642 BCE.
Hydraulic water management and (middle) dam of Roman architecture, right: destroyed
day after, our hard work started in Lower Khuzestan, taking approximately 1.5 cores
a day with an average of 15 m core described per day. A total of 17 cores, with
a maximum depth of 11m were taken and described. The map shows the location of
the cores carried out during previous campaigns and those carried out during
this campaign (labelled with 14-X). We cored in different environments going
from coastal mudflats, freshwater swamps, sabkhas and playas, some of them
disturbed by human activity. These different environments (and other) are also
recorded in the sediments of the subsoil. It is our challenge to make their
reconstruction through time.
showing all the cores in our study area (including previous campaigns). Cores
taken during our 2014 campaign are labelled as 14-x
Top left: tidal gully at core 14-8, top right: dune formation
close by a playa, bottom: a splendid example of sub-tidal deposits around 10 m
depth with daily tidal changes with moreover neap and spring tide sequences
The last core was sampled entirely for palynological
and microfossil research resulting in a 15 kg weighting box to be placed in our
baggage together with 5 kg samples from the other cores (for clay analyses, 14C
determination, etc.). Luckily we were allowed to take 2 bags of 23 kg per
person, otherwise we had to leave our boots and dirty clothes at the guesthouse.
Left: coring and describing on a cold
morning. Right: a too powerful performance after eating kebab.
The use of the
Edelman corer, the gauge auger, the spiral corer and a bag filled with
extension rods was all we needed to get nice undisturbed samples of the
subsurface. A crazy madman driving our first jeep and an old petrol-smelling
jeep, which lost now and then some important motor screws, and finally got
stuck on some small muddy roads, turned our campaign into an ‘old-fashion
safari experience’. The rice and kebab empowered our coring team and the nice
warm sun massaged our brains and muscles.
Again, we want to thank the
Geological Survey of Iran for their excellent logistic support, a special thank
for Dawod the fantastic cook, Ali Reza for his strength, Javad for his
organising skills and roll as core-master, Reza for his sharp observations, the
drivers for keeping us alive and dr. Lak for making this fieldwork possible. A
special thanks goes to our last-year ‘rock ‘n roll’ driver Farhot who passed
away during our stay in Iran.
Towards a third Iran campaign ? “INSH ALLAH” !
Rindert Janssens, dr. Frieda Bogemans and prof. dr. Cecile Baeteman,
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences - OD Earth and History of Life –
On Thursday 27 and Friday 28 February 2014, an international conference
entitled “Topography and Toponymy in the Ancient Near East: Perspectives and Prospects” took place at the Oriental
Institute of the Université catholique de Louvain. This conference, organized
by the research group “Ancient Near Eastern Studies” of the aforementioned
institute, was held within the framework of Work Package III (“Historical
Geography”) of the IAP-Project 7/14.
The conference was organized in five sessions: “Water”, “The Lands”,
“Routes”, “Fields” and “Methodological Approaches”. International and Belgian
speakers (see programme) delivered interesting and qualitative contributions
followed by profound discussions. The conference covered all regions of the
Ancient Near East (Anatolia, Levant, Mesopotamia and Elam-Iran) as well as the
2rd and 1st Millennium. Proceedings of this conference
will be published.
Sincere thanks for the smooth organisation of this conference go to the
Organizing Committee consisting of Prof. Dr. J. Tavernier, Prof. Em. R. Lebrun, Dr. A. Tourovets, Dr. Ch.
Lebrun, Dr. J. De Vos, A. Degrève, E. Gorris and E. Van Quickelberghe.
27 février / Thursday 27 February
Prof. V. Yzerbyt, Prorecteur à la
Recherche of the Université catholique de
Louvain. Prof. P. Hiligsmann, Dean of the Faculté de philosophie, arts et lettres. Prof. J. den Heijer, Président of
the Centre d’Etudes Orientales – Institut
Devillers & Prof. J. Tavernier, Introduction
to the IAP Project « Greater Mesopotamia: Reconstruction of its
Environment and History ».
Session 1: Les Eaux / Water (Président de session / Chair : René
Abraham (KU Leuven)
Water for Nippur: The Location of the Sumundar Canal
Van Lerberghe (KU Leuven)
Pause-café / Coffee Break
Labarre (Université de Franche-Comté ; laboratoire ISTA)
Les cités riveraines des lacs pisidiens Askania (Burdur) et Limnè (Eğridir)
Field WorkPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Fri, March 14, 2014 12:15:48 From 18 to 21 November 2013 the Portable Light Dome was used at the Musée de Louvain-La-Neuve (UCLouvain, Belgium) for a recording programme of cuneiform documents, Mesopotamian seal impressions, antique coins, Etruscan mirrors, gold leaf inscriptions, scarabs and other archaeological objects. In the IAP: Greater Mesopotamia these actions take place within WP VI, i.e. the recording of Mesopotamian Heritage kept at the home institutions of the IAP 7/14 partners to allow a (re)new(ed) study of this material. This initiative was made possible thanks to the hospitality of Etienne Duyckaerts and Emmanuelle Druart of the Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve.
Shortly after the recording sessions the first results were already presented to the public in one of the exhibition showcases of the Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve (below). The audio-visual services of the UCLouvain prepared a video (below, in French and Dutch) on the event. During the stay, a demo on the applied imaging technique was organised.
the 16th of January, some members of the KU Leuven team have transformed the
New Year’s drink of the faculty into a fundraising event to support SOS
Syrian Children, a Belgian organization which brings medical and
educational material to the refugee camps in the surroundings of Aleppo.
Goddeeris, Greta Jans, Joachim Bretschneider and Anne-Sophie Van Vyve have
asked the dean, Luc Draye, to cancel the order for snacks and have called on
their colleagues of the faculty to prepare their own delicacies, which resulted
in a 15 meter long buffet of exquisite appetizers. This was even adequate to
attract some very important people of the University like (former)
(vice-)rectors: Prof. Rik Torfs, Prof. Danny Pieters, Prof. André
Oosterlinck en Prof. Marc Vervenne. An impression of the event can be
seen on the facebook page of the arts faculty (https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.756031077758407.1073741829.494542187240632&type=1).
guests at the drink enthusiastically supported the initiative, with culinary
masterpieces as well as financially. At the end the money box contained 1722
euro! And yesterday, we have rounded the cape of €2000! Thanks to our KU Leuven
Letteren colleagues! Additional
contributions may still increase the amount of money which we offer to Suzy
Bochi and her team who are transporting
wheelchairs, school books, powdered milk, hospital beds and other scarcities
over the Syrian border through Turkey (https://nl-nl.facebook.com/SOSSyrianChildren).
recently published a new album in the 'Voyages
d'Alix' series, dedicated to ancient Babylon!
Martin's hero Alix guides us through the city, with its Hanging Gardens, colorful
Ishtar Gate, impressive temples and palaces... But we also get the opportunity
to visit ancient Assur, Khorsabad and Ninive.
The very detailed drawings by the hand of Jean-Marie Ruffieux and the
accompanying texts by art historian Anne Deckers make it all come to life.
And as the proverbial icing on the cake, we are treated to an enthusiastic
preface by our own Eric Gubel!
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Tue, November 12, 2013 10:06:30 Thursday
the 31st of October, the Royal Museums of Art and History of
Brussels were the stage for several eloquent speeches by the members of the
Belgian IAP Project “Greater Mesopotamia”, associated researchers, domestic and foreign specialists. After a
short welcome by Eric Gubel, head of the project and president of this seminar,
there were a total of three sessions with eleven lectures of twenty minutes
each (and this limit was - quite surprisingly – respected by all speakers). The
first two sessions were dedicated to research within Mesopotamia proper, the
third discussed new findings in peripheral areas, such as Syria and Cilicia. The
various presentations gave an insight into the bounteous possibilities that
research into ancient seals has to offer – and the ingenuity of the scholars
who succeed in exploiting every last one of these possibilities to their full
potential. After the final coffee break, Dominique Collon presented a lecture
for the Assyriological Center Georges Dossin on second millennium glyptic, after
a previous (surprise) discussion of several seals earlier that day.
Field WorkPosted by Elynn Gorris Fri, October 18, 2013 14:56:04 On August
30 2013, E. Gorris (UCLouvain) visited the Louvre Museum to take detailed
digital images of Neo-Elamite monumental objects, displayed in the exhibition
rooms of the Near Eastern Department. These images will contribute to a detailed
paleographic study of the cuneiform signs, which will serve as an instrument to
determine the chronology of the Neo-Elamite kings. This study frames in E.
Gorris’ PhD dissertation on the History of the Neo-Elamite Kingdom as part of Work Package V, “History and Chronology” of the Greater Mesopotamia IAP. Especially the steles of Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak
and Shutruru, of which no detailed photographs are published, were taken as the
This Summer a team of four members of the IAP project ‘Greater Mesopotamia’ is working at the collection of cuneiform tablets stored at Cornell University. The team consists of Prof. Kathleen Abraham, Gabriella Voet and Prof. Karel Van Lerberghe (University of Leuven), and of Hendrik Hameeuw (Royal Museums of Art and History & University of Leuven). From June till November 2013 work is focusing on 700 new unpublished texts dealing with social and economic problems in Mesopotamia during the reigns of king Samsuiluna (1749-1712 BCE) and his successor Abiešuḫ (1711-1684 BCE). Most of the tablets are registered by using the Portable Light Dome. In time, these dynamic images will be made available for the international scientific community via the ‘Greater Mesopotamia’ website and are being stored on the Leuven University servers. At the same time, the images are also being published, together with transliterations, translations and comments in three books in the series CUSAS. A first volume, dealing mainly with tablets originating from the Enlil temple at Dūr-Abiešuḫ has been published in 2009 as CUSAS 8 (Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology).
Prof. em. Karel Van Lerberghe en Prof. Kathleen Abraham in the Tablet Room
This dossier gives evidence for the abandonment of Southern Mesopotamia in the late Old Babylonian period in a period of economic distress due to environmental changes. The clergy of Mesopotamia’s religious capital, Nippur, moved to the North and built a new center at Dūr-Abiešuḫ where they erected the new Ekur-temple for their chief deity Enlil. The next one, CUSAS 25, containing some 300 new tablets, is scheduled for 2014. It gives most important information on the activities of the mercenaries in the Babylonian rulers’ army controlling and protecting the Tigris river, the irrigation system and the Babylonian cities from enemies (most probably from the Sealand). Those mercenaries come from various areas such as Maškan-šapir, Gutium, Damrum and even Aleppo (Ḫalaba). The volume contains administrative and juridical documents and related letters (e.g. on the siege of Nippur). All seal impressions are copied and described and the use of the seals is being investigated.
During our stay at Cornell other tablets were studied as well. These will make up a third volume in the CUSAS series with texts dating from before the collapse of the Babylonian empire (under king Samsuiluna) and from the beginning of the decline (under king Abiešuḫ).
Hendrik Hameeuw with the Portable Light Dome in the Tablet Room
With de PLD-minidome some test were run with a new HD camera (GX6600c, ca. 28 mill. pixels). Recordings were made with the trusted and normally used lower definition camera, the Manta G504C IRC, and compared with images taken with the GX of one and the same cuneiform tablet. The outcome is used to establish an understanding on in which cases (type of tablets, with or without seal impressions) low or high definition is requested and can or can not be seen as an added value. (see illustration, left with Manta, right with GX)
As always, our stay at Cornell is extremely pleasant thanks to the staff of the Rosen Seminar helping us in many ways. David and Susan Owen should be thanked here in the first place. We also wish to mention: Jeff Zorn, Alex Kleinerman and Laura Johnson-Kelly.
The hospitality of our hosts is well-known in Assyriological circles and we had the pleasure to meet once again several colleagues equally working at the Rosen Collection: Prof. Jean-Marie Durand (Collège de France et Membre de l’Académie Française), Dr. Grégory Chambon (Université de Brest), Dr. Michaël Guichard (Université Paris I) and Dr. Bertrand Lafont ( CNRS, Paris).
NewsPosted by Vanessa Boschloos Fri, August 09, 2013 12:07:03
Syria has six UNESCO
World Heritage Sites: Palmyra, Damascus, Bosra, Aleppo, the ancient Villages of
Northern Syria, and the crusader castles Crac des Chevaliers and Saladin’s
Castle. Some of the oldest cities in the world are located in Syria and a great
diversity of civilisations left their mark. GMREH had to move its
archaeological activities to other regions, but its researchers continue their
work on the material culture, archaeology, epigraphy and history of ancient
Here are some reports
and columns published online, for those who want to know more about
the threats to Syria’s heritage:
- In March 2012, Le
Vif/L’Express magazine interviewed Belgian archaeologists Marc Lebeau (ECUMS -
Tell Beydar excavations), Eric Gubel (RMAH - Tell Kazel excavations) and Didier
Viviers (ULB - Apamea excavations) on Belgian archaeological activities in Syria [in French]:
Field WorkPosted by Joachim Bretschneider Fri, August 02, 2013 15:24:47 In the framework of interrelations between
the Levant and the Aegean world, Prof. Joachim Bretschneider and Greta Jans
from the KU Leuven conducted a research excursion on Crete from the 6th until
the 20th of July. They visited the Archaeological Museum in Heraklion and
several sites in northern and eastern Crete, like Knossos, Malia, Sissi,
Dreros, Ithanos, Palaikastro and Azoria.
Prof. Bretschneider and Greta Jans were
generously guided by Prof. Jan Driessen (UCLouvain) at the site of Malia and
Sissi, by Dr. Florence Gaignerot (Université de Picardie Jules Verne) at
Dreros, by Prof. Carl Knappett (University of
Toronto), Dr. Tim Cunningham (UCLouvain) and Dr. Nicoletta Momigliano (University of Bristol) at
Palaikstro, by Prof. Donald Haggis (University
of North Carolina) at Azoria and by Prof. Didier Viviers (rector ULB) and Prof. Athena Tsingarida (ULB) at Ithanos.
At the Archaeological
Museum of Heraklion Joachim Bretschneider rendered digital images of sphinxes
on mural painting and plaster reliefs for the research of his doctoral student
A short introduction to the visited sites:
The famous Knossos,
near Heraklion, was excavated by the British School at Athens. It is the largest Bronze Agearchaeological site on Crete and was inhabited continuously from the Neolithic period until the 5th
century AD. The palace of Knossos was undoubtedly the ceremonial and political
centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. It appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and
storerooms close to a central square. The palace was abandoned at the end of
the Late Bronze Age.
The excavation of Malia is under the direction of the
French Archaeological School at Athens. It is situated by Hersonissos in
Northern Crete and is one of the largest Middle and Late Bronze Age urban
centres on Crete. It was first built around 1900 BC. It subsequently followed
the same cycle as the other palaces of the time, and it was destroyed around
1650 before it was immediately rebuilt. The ruins at the site today reflect
this second rebirth of the palace and the excavations reveal a place of
significant economic and political activity which lasted until its final
destruction by fire in 1450 BC. An extensive complex of settlements had
developed around the palace itself.
With Prof. Driessen at Malia
Archaeological Project (S.Ar.P.edon)
is a collaboration of the French and Dutch speaking universities of
Louvain/Leuven directed by Prof. Jan Driessen (UCLouvain) and operates under
the auspices of the Belgian
School of Athens. The archaeological site of Sissi lies just a
few kilometres from Malia, and was occupied in the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze
and Early Iron Age. Between 1450 and 1200 BC, Sissi was probably the most
important regional centre.
Prof. Driessen at Sissi
Dreros excavations are directed by the French
Archaeological School at Athens. Dreros, near Neapoli in the
regional unit of Lasithi, existed as an Iron Age settlement that later grew to
become a classical city-state.
With Dr. Gaignerot at Dreros
Since 1996 the Université
Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) has been conducting fieldwork in the North Necropolis
under the direction of Prof. Didier Viviers. Ithanos is a city-harbour located
in Eastern Crete. The archaeological record shows that the site was occupied
from the 10th century BC to the 6th century AD. Earlier excavations focused on
the urban centre of the city. The recent campaigns in the North Necropolis
brought to light a densely occupied cemetery dated to the Late Classical and
Hellenistic periods (4th-1st c. BC), and early funerary activity dated
to the Geometric – Orientalizing periods (8th and 7th c. BC).
Prof. Viviers, Prof. Tsingarida,
Prof. Driessen and Dr. Gaignerot at Ithanos
The excavation of the site
is directed by Prof. Carl
Knappett, Prof. Alexander MacGillivray, and Prof. Hugh Sackett under the patronage of the British School of
Archaeology in Athens. The Bronze Age town is situated some kilometres north of
the Minoan town and palace of Zakros at the edge
of the eastern coast of Crete. The site was occupied from the Early Bronze Age until the end of the Late
Bronze Age. The site ceased to be inhabited at the same time
when Zakros was abandoned (1450 BC) but was reoccupied during the Late Minoan
III period (1300-1200 BC).
With Prof. Knappett, Prof.
Driessen and Dr. Cunningham at Palaikastro
is conducted by permission of the Greek Ministry of Culture under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Archaeological Service of Eastern
Crete. The Azoria Project is directed by Prof. Donald Haggis of the University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The project is investigating an Early Iron
Age and Archaic site to the southeast of Agios Nikolaios.
Prof. Haggis, Prof. Driessen and Dr. Gaignerot at Azoria
resemblance between some cultural phenomena of the Aegean and the Levant makes
a partnered research very beneficial. An attempt was made to synchronize
certain assemblages of archaeological material in the Northern Levant and the
Eastern Mediterranean, like the transitional Late Bronze - Early Iron Age
evidence, with the ‘Sea Peoples’ coming from the Aegean to the Near East. For example, large amounts
of hourglass-shaped loom weights - a type of weight generally interpreted as a cultural
marker of the ‘Sea Peoples’ - were excavated in Sissi as well as in Tell
A further challenging research topic focused on the Syro-Phoenician
influence on the architecture and architectural decoration of the oldest Greek
temple at Prinias (8th -7th c. BC) decorated with sculptures.
Most recent finds (from miniature house and temple models in Syria and
Palestine) allow new interpretations of the impact of Levantine cultures on the
Prinias religious architectural decoration of the Archaic Period.
15th until the 19th of July, the international community of Assyriologists has landed
in Ghent for its yearly “Rencontre” (RAI 59). The theme of this edition, “Law and
(dis)order” could be approached from different angles, which resulted in a
variety of contributions on law, linguistics, gender, economy and chronology,
to name just some of the topics.
Hendrik Hameeuw (RMAH-KU Leuven) presented a poster "Interactive Cuneiform Imaging for Research and Publishing", Anne Goddeeris (KU Leuven) gave a talk on a disordered calendric
system, “A Tangled Framework. A Calendric Innovation by Rim-Sîn”, and Jan
Tavernier (UCLouvain) on drunkenness and hangovers, “Disorder in the Head! Alcohol Abuse
and Hangovers in the Ancient Near East”. Young IAP members Elynn Gorris and Etienne Van
Quickelberghe participated in the congress as well. Jan Tavernier and Anne
Goddeeris have each chaired a session closely related to their research interests.
lunch and evening breaks were well spent making and renewing acquaintances and
discussing future plans (besides trying out the advices given in Jan
Field WorkPosted by Anne Goddeeris Mon, July 22, 2013 18:08:23 From June
30th until July 13th, Dr. Anne Goddeeris studied a number
of cuneiform tablets in the University Museum of the University of
Pennsylvania. The research stay took place in the framework of Work Package V,
“History and Chronology” (supported via WP VI) of the Greater Mesopotamia IAP and was additionally financed by the FWO-Vlaanderen.
In the museum,
she studied legal and administrative texts from Nippur, the religious capital
of Babylonia, dating from 1900-1700 BC. These archives, excavated by the
Babylonian Expedition at the end of the 19th century, are dispersed
over three collections, now kept in Istanbul (Turkey), Jena (Germany) and Philadelphia (US). The texts
in Philadelphia have been collated, situated in their archival context and
recorded with the Portable Light Dome system.
17 - 21 June 2013. CDLI -one of the international partners in the IAP 7/14: Greater Mesopotamia- scans a large portion of the cuneiform documents housed at the Royal Museums of Art and History and the National Bank of Belgium, both located in Brussels. This work for the CDLI database is conducted by Laura Hawkins of the University of Oxford. The collaboration aims at the continuation of the efforts to digitally safeguard these images and making qualitative scanned images quickly available to the scientific community and to the broad public.
Laura Hawkins scanning @ RMAH
These scanning sessions were made possible thanks to Robert Englund (UCLA), Bertrand Lafont (Paris), Jacob Dahl (Oxford), Eric Gubel (RMAH) and Marianne Danneel (Museum of the National Bank of Belgium).
the 13th of June 2013 a demo and trial session was organized at the Musée de
Louvain-la-Neuve in regard to the imaging efforts of Mesopotamian heritage conducted by the IAP network
(work package VI). IAP-partner UCLouvain keeps at their museum a small
collection of a few dozen of cuneiform texts and some stamp & cylinder seals. This
first visit with the Portable Light Dome (PLD) to the museum was organised to
inspect the to image material and to demonstrate to the museum curator,
photographer, employees and UCL researchers the potential the PLD technique. As
such, we settled a complete week of recordings, scheduled for November 2013. In
addition, not only cuneiform documents and seals will be scanned, but we plan
to test the use of the PLD-technique on selected series of other epigraphic and
archaeological objects safeguarded at the Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve.
sincerely thank Emmanuelle Druart, Etienne Duyckaerts and Jan Tavernier for
organizing this trial.
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Thu, May 30, 2013 08:00:43 On the 29th of May 2013 the IAP Greater Mesopotamia organized its first annual meeting of phase VII of the network. At the Royal Museums of Art and History coordinator prof. dr. Eric Gubel invited all national and international partners to join this event and report on their work of the past year and discus future research plans. The meeting was, as it should for a network focusing on the ancient Near East, preceded by an oriental (Lebanese) lunch.
Photographer H. Hameeuw might be missing on the group picture
Oriental lunch @ RMAH
Presenting the IAP's research, in this case the on-going study on the finds from Tell Kazel (Syria)
NewsPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Thu, May 30, 2013 07:30:54 In the KU Leuven info-journal 'Campuskrant' prof. em. Karel Van Lerberghe (member of this IAP-network) has been interviewed on his career as an assyriologist at his home university, his days at Ghent and Leiden University, his participations to archaeological digs and inter-disciplinary projects and his on-going research at Cornell University (Ithaca-US)
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Thu, April 18, 2013 09:20:01 Master Thesis on new developments with the Portable Light Dome (Minidome)
Since a few months Groep T (Association KU Leuven) student Vincent Vanweddingen works on the development of an online application to allow visualization of the Portable Light Dome results. He posts his progress and steps in a blog and has uploaded some images and video's on this new online viewer.
This IAP 7/14: WP VI, collaborates with Vincent's work and provides him with the necessary feedback and comments. Since March 2013 several members of our IAP are running and testing the beta version(s) he has developed.
As many members of this IAP network are pioneering and using the Portable Light Dome extensively for their on-going research, this new approach will allow our researcher to share the material they work than ever before. Secondly, it will give new possibilities in making the university and museum collections (within the IAP network and beyond) on Mesopotamian Heritage available for both the scientific as well as the broad public.
Field work in the Lower Khuzestan plain (SW Iran), February 2013
by the partner of the Geological Survey of Belgium (The Royal Belgium Institute
of Natural Sciences).
Changing positions of the shoreline of
the Persian Gulf in relation to
sea-level changes and sediment supply by the rivers and the sea played an important role in the southern Mesopotamian
history and the patterns of human settlement. Changing shoreline positions in
Lower Khuzestan (SW Iran) are associated with changing landscapes such as tidal
flats, marshes, sabkhas and fluvial plains. The data for the reconstruction of
the changing landscapes in time, or the palaeogeography, are recorded in the
subsoil and hence, recovered by coring.
The first coring campaign of this IAP 7/14 project took place in
February 2013 in an area of about 4000 km2 surrounding Shadegan. The
one-month field campaign was carried out by Prof. Cecile Baeteman and MSc
Rindert Janssens from the Geological Survey of Belgium (The Royal Belgium
Institute of Natural Sciences) with the joint effort by colleagues of the
Geological Survey of Iran (GSI) and 2 PhD students of the University of
Teheran. Dr. Razi Lak from the GSI organized the excellent logistic support
together with the Environmental Office of Abadan.
27 hand-operated undisturbed cores until a depth of 11 m were described and
sampled for further investigation (14C dating, mineralogy, XRD, palaeontology). Particularly the information at greater depth (that
was not attained during the 2 campaigns of the previous IAP P5/14 project) provided
new ideas of the palaeogeography and environmental changes. Tidally influenced
deposits were found until about 50 km northwest of the present-day shoreline of
the Persian Gulf; marsh deposits alternating with river deposits indicate
periods of frequent flooding; dust deposits in the fluvial record were now
discovered as well as a former course of the river Jarrahi in the eastern part
of the study area.
Dust deposits in the fluvial record.
Small boats were used to get access for coring in the
At the occasion of his stay in Abadan, Rindert Janssens was invited by Prof.
Dr. Dadolagi Sohrab and his team of the Khorramshahr University of Marine
Sciences and Technology in Abadan to present the preliminary results of the
field work. A future collaboration with this university will also be
established because of their great interest in the results about the Holocene
geology that hitherto was unknown to them.
Coring in cold weather, despite the semi-arid warm climate.
Exeptional flooding of the Lower Khuzestan plain
between Abadan and Shadegan, February 2013.
A well deserved and well organized lunch after the hard
First Saudi-Belgian Research Campaign in the Al-Ghat
with the participation of two IAP partners (the KU
Leuven and the Université Catholique de
research in the Al-Ghat region - an area with a very rich history located in
the Alhamada valley in North Central Saudi Arabia - was inspired by the
Abdulrahman Al-Sudairy Foundation and His Excellency Marc Vinck, the Belgian
ambassador in Saudi Arabia.
project works under the aegis of the following institutions:
the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Riyadh (represented by Mr.
Mohammed Ali Alsalouk) and
the University of Leuven, Belgium (represented by Prof. Dr. Joachim
Bretschneider, Faculty of Arts - Near Eastern Studies)
first study season - in cooperation with the Université Catholique de Louvain
(represented by Prof. Jan Tavernier) - was conducted between the 27th of
December 2012 and the 12th of January 2013 and followed a primary visit of
Prof. Joachim Bretschneider in 2011 and a first survey looking for early human
activity by Prof. Philip Van Peer in 2012.
project was five-fold:
survey project in the Al-Ghat region looking for early human activity in the
The study of the textual and iconographical material incised on rocks.
Topographical documentation of some significant sites in the Al-Ghat region.
didactic student program concerning the study of mud brick architecture in the
old town of Al-Ghat.
Stratigraphical sounding in the old town of Al-Ghat.
first joint Saudi-Belgian Mission confirms the archaeological, epigraphic and
historic high potential of the Al-Ghat region. Concerning our research topics
(survey for prehistoric material, textual and iconographical study) cutting edge science activities can be expected from further
large scale research projects including surveys and landscape studies. The
region of Inner Arabia can surely provide archaeological, epigraphic and
iconographical data which will stand in the focus of the international
Photos J. Bretschneider: Old North Arabian inscriptions and rock art at Jebel
Markh (Saudi Arabia, Al-Ghat region).
Photo J. Bretschneider: The high amount of Levalloiscores and flakes on the Jebel Al-Samar confirms
that the hill was used and intensively exploited by Middle Paleolithic hunter
The team (starting right on top): Dr. Michel Debruyne,
Wim Verhulst, Elynn Gorris, Greta Jans, Romy Heyrmans, Jaza Abdullah Al Harbi, Prof.
Jan Tavernier, Dave Geerts, Nicolas Kress, Mohammed Ali Alsalouk and Prof.
In view of the
political situation in Syria and the temporary shutdown of the excavations at
Tell Kazel, the Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut moved
its archaeological activities to southern Lebanon in 2012, where Leila Badre was
assigned a new project by the Lebanese Directorate General of Antiquities. The
continued collaboration with the RMAH ensured that the Belgian component of the
Archaeological Mission of Tell Kazel (Eric Gubel and Vanessa Boschloos) joined
the new excavations, in the city of Tyre. Originally an island, this ancient
Phoenician port city was connected to the mainland by a causeway constructed by
Alexander the Great during his siege of the city in 332 BCE. The site is known
for its Roman ruins, particularly a hippodrome that was inscribed on UNESCO’s
list of World Heritage Sites in 1984.
The aim of the
2012 excavation campaign was to reach the pre-Hellenistic levels in a sector
located on the island site of ancient Tyre, Sector 7. The unexpected presence of
an already excavated building at the site was due to the loss of all records of
a 1970s campaign conducted by Emir Maurice Chehab in this sector. Nevertheless,
during the 2012 excavations soundings were carried out inside the structure and
in the adjacent units, to gather the little information that could still be
recovered. The architecture, the pottery assemblage and an animal bone pit
inside the structure point towards a temple, consequently representing one of
the oldest cultic structures unearthed in Tyre thus far. It has a surface of at
least 160 m² and its northern part consists of a podium on which an altar is
erected with a height of 1.60 m. It is topped by a large monolithic bloc of
limestone. The level of groundwater in Sector 7 (at 0.75 to 0.95 m above sea
level), however, did not allow excavating to bedrock but the results of the
soundings, together with an analysis of the pottery finds and the architectural
remains, allowed postulating a late Persian-Hellenistic date for this
University of Ghent (Belgium) keeps some 45 cuneiform tablets that
originate from the Susa excavations (chantier A). One of the IAP project goals sketched in Workpackage VI is to allow the
in house expertise on imaging Mesopotamian heritage to be used by partners
outside the network to facilitate research in Greater Mesopotamian studies. In that regard, on
November 29 and 30 this small collection was scanned with the Portable Light
allow prof. Katrien De Graef and her team at Ghent to tackle the content of
these documents and shed new light on the history of Susa, in particular into
the Old Babylonian period to which most of the tablets in this collection date.
ActivitiesPosted by Hendrik Hameeuw Wed, September 26, 2012 16:08:53 Work Package VI of the Greater Mesopotamia IAP deals on Imaging and
Technology. In this regard, the IAP partners organized on 13 and 14
September 2012 an international Seminar on 'New Visualization Systems
within Cuneiform Studies. Opportunities and Hazards'. For the digital
registration of cuneiform tablets and several other types of
archaeological objects, such as seal impressions or coins, the IAP
partners have built up experience since years with the so-called PTM
technology. In particular, the KU Leuven team has scanned hundreds of
tablets and objects and prepared publications based on these images and
wrote papers dealing on the used technologies. WP VI of our IAP aims to
consolidate this and expand its use on the archaeological collections of
the RMAH, the UCLouvain, KU Leuven and other additional collections or
objects from archaeological excavations. During the last decade, several
other research groups around the world have experimented also with
similar techniques with as test objects cuneiform tablets.
Based on this background and in regard to the IAP partnership
with CDLI we organized this Seminar at the KU Leuven department of ESAT
and the RMAH department of Antiquities. Researchers working with PTM,
RTI and 3D modeling within Cuneiform Studies at Southampton, Oxford,
Heidelberg, Leuven and Brussels were asked to join this series of
lectures, demonstrations, discussions and workshops to scope on the
possibilities these techniques allow, the benefits they have proven
scholars in the field of Assyriology and analyze the results they
deliver. During two these two days at Leuven and Brussels, the
participants (invited scholars, graduate students, doctoral students,
postdocs, professors and managers in the heritage sector) were both
introduced to what the technologies are about and took the opportunity
to approach them critically.